Since independence, Central Asian countries have been plagued by regional and global forces. Geographically, Central Asia was founded, but it is rich in natural resources. Meanwhile, Pakistan is always ready to take advantage of these countries. Pakistan and the countries of Central Asia must have a common history, religion, and culture. From a strategic geographical point of view, Pakistan offers these countries in the region the shortest route to world maritime trade. The pacts signed a series of pacts, pacts, and protocols, except that these pacts did not concern Pakistani political leaders due to Afghanistan’s political instability and poor security conditions. It had no effect. This study aims to identify the fluctuating relations between Pakistan and the Central Asian countries. It also examines Pakistan’s interest in Central Asia, its strategic importance, and political opportunities for Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to identify obstacles and opportunities between Pakistan and the Central Asian Countries.
Central Asia is the inland area of Turkey, Iran, Greece, and neighboring Arabs as an empire or superpower against, particularly vulnerable countries. After another Chinese and Russian superpower, Central Asia finally took shape after USSR collapsed in 1991. As a result, there are five countries in Central Asia: “Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.” There are many differences between the five countries and many associations. Although these countries have a common history and culture, they suffer from different ethnic problems, economic conditions, and international relations. The role of Russia in the 1990s influenced its influence in Central Asia. Russia plays a key role in influencing national and international politics in Central Asia. The vanishing of the USSR from the world map and the presence of the Central Asian Countries have changed the geopolitical landscape of the region. Gas and Oil assets have become significant in these countries. These countries have more gas and oil assets than the Middle East, and minerals are found all over the world. Due to the properties of black silk and the old parts of the Soviet Union, most of the streets are in Moscow, and since independence, these countries have been pioneers and have founded new countries, seas, and airlines in the outside world.
“PAK- Central Asia Relations”
After USSR collapsed, the energy-rich countries of Central Asia have become increasingly important in the foreign policy of Pakistan. Pakistan’s proximity to CARs has fueled Islamabad’s desire to strengthen economic and political relations with these countries. I have also recognized that the lack of common borders with the countries of Central Asia is one of the greatest obstacles for the region. Topographically, Tajikistan is the most closely located state to Pakistan, the distance being just only 14-kilometers.
The catastrophic incident of 9/11 proved to be a watershed event that instigated and encouraged Pakistan to develop closer relationships with the CARs.
“Analysis of Pakistan’s relations with Central Asia from the lens of Regional Security Complex theory:”
The international system changes rapidly hourly, especially since September 11 after the end of the Cold War. An interesting example of such dynamics can be found in Central Asia. In Central Asia, the balance of power is uncertain, restless, and constantly changing. This article proposes that the RRSC theory encompasses this complex international reality. As discussed in the previous section, the regional security complex must consider four key variables. By combining these variables, Boson and Weaver proposed three possible improvements to CHR. This option does not mean that changes are made to your infrastructure. Internal change. Boson and Weaver argue that internal changes (regional integration, polarity, development, etc.) can have an impact on a company’s socially responsible infrastructure. External changes are changes (expansion or contraction) within the limits of corporate social responsibility. This change generally affects RSC members. For Central and South Asia, two of the three CHR evolution models proposed by Busan and Weaver are easy to understand. Therefore, from Pakistan’s point of view, there are two important changes that affect the stability of CSR in South Asia. Many factors may be involved in this change, but perhaps India’s economic miracle is crucial. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, India lost its important international ally. Therefore, India has adopted a reformed economic program to help widen the gap between the two South Asian countries by distributing electricity to the Republic of Sri Lanka. Pakistan is in severe recession as India shows economic growth. Currency exchange: In 1989, the Afghan army defeated the mujahideen in collaboration with the Soviet army, the United States, and Saudi Arabia. Far from being safe neighbors, Afghanistan represents a serious threat to the security of Pakistan. Therefore, Afghanistan has defined the position as an isolated country between the two regional groups as a serious security problem in Central and South Asia. In other words, the emergence of real threats, such as government bans on Tail, has led to the new security event, a collection of human rights documents in Central and South Asia.
“STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN FOR CARS:”
The geo-strategic position of Pakistan compels the Central Asian countries to take it into account whenever they ponder over the region. Pakistan is the shortest and most helpful trade passage to the sea for landlocked Central Asian states. Pakistan is a perfect way for Central Asian states’ worldwide trade via sea. Nonetheless, this trade route has remained worthless and ineffectual for a long owing to insecurity and conflicts in Afghanistan. Still, Karachi and Gwadar ports of Pakistan can provide valuable seaport and shipment accommodations to CASs to commence their trade and join the international market for considerable profits. The closest port city for CASs in Karachi, which is 2,720 km away. Conversely, the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas is 3,400 km and the Russian ports, Vladivostok and Rostov on the Don are 9,500 km and 4,200 km away, respectively. If Pakistan and CASs come closer, it will be a win-win situation for both because they are vital to each other. For Pakistan, hydrocarbon assets of CASs are great sources of energy that can adequately fulfill its increasing energy needs and mitigate its power requirements that are proving to be stumbling blocks in an upward economic trajectory.
“PAKISTAN’S INTERESTS IN CENTRAL ASIA:”
Pakistan is an important part of South Asia. “Pakistan serves as a bridge between South and West Asia to protect the resources of the Middle East and South Asia.” The Karakorum Highway is an old silk road that connects the ports of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan and Guadals and enables land communication through the Republic of Central Asia and Tajikistan. Karachi has located 1600 km from Kum Fuliet. From CARs region, the port of Pakistan, Pasni and Gwadar. It is the shortest economic route between Pakistan and CARs. This facilitates the mutual exchange of raw materials and finished products. It is important to note that “Pakistan needs to build cultural and economic ties with the Central Asian republics”. This will allow the Indian and Pakistani governments to penetrate the strategic depths of South Asia. Pakistan and the Central Asian Republic have similarities with societies such as Islam and the tribal systems, architecture, art and design. In ancient times two exchanges took place between the two communities, Afghanistan was used to reach another region. The Pakistani city of Peshawar is a large trading city. The road from Samarkand to Multan and Lahore was used for trade. Pakistan’s ports in Central Asia can be improved, and if future events are connected to the outside world, this region could become another Middle East. “Port Gwadar is the first step in realizing Pakistan’s desire to become China’s a trade and energy. The shortest sea route to the Central Asian Republic is crossed by the Pakistani port of the Arabian Sea. You can reach Central Asia by train or by road via the port of Gwadar. There are two railways nearby in Central Asia from Koch and Tirumi.
“For land routes, Central Asia and Pakistan have the following options:”
- Route from Salang Pass, Kabul, Jalalabad, Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi.
- “Route from Tajikistan through Badakhshan across Pyanj River to western passes in Frontier Province and to Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi.”
- From Karakuram highway, Kashgar, Gilgit, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi.
- From Chitral, Pune, Berugal to Kangun, Kurto, Hund, Kharog, take Tajikistan to the M41 road. Pamir Road is part of the M41 road, which connects Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) with Pams (Uzbekistan) and crosses the Pamir and Tajikistan mountains. Afghanistan’s stability is essential for Pakistan to join the Central Asian Republic. The use of Pakistan’s oil and gas resources is a basic requirement for Pakistan. In relation to Central Asia, Pakistan has been officially recognized as an energy gallery for the countries of the region, due to the extraordinary image respected and the strategic respect of the nations of the world.
Pakistan has served as a tent and analytical tool in the interior areas.,
- Pakistan relies primarily on strategies and tactics that promote advanced trade and liberalization in Central Asia.
- Pakistan wants to have a strong military position in the region to minimize India’s participation in the region.
- This is the closest link with Central Asia in terms of security measures related to regional integration and further cooperation with Afghanistan.
- Pakistan seeks to maintain friendly relations with Kyrgyzstan to establish deep relations that help to guarantee the supply of electricity on a large scale to Pakistan in the ports of Karachi and Gwadar.
- India, the biggest obstacle for Pakistan due to the presence of two nuclear weapons against power, India is the reason why Pakistan is fighting to win this incredible game.
- Increased transport from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
- Refuel from Turkmenistan to Pakistan through Afghanistan.
- As Pakistan is an agricultural country, it helps Central Asian countries to provide agricultural structures to the region to reduce India’s interest in the country.
“Pakistan’s Strategies in Central Asia;”
- Cultural Links:
“To establish close ties with Central Asia, Pakistan sought to exploit its cultural ties to the region.” Pakistan is a cultural expansion of the Central Asia region. From this point of view, Pakistani scientists said: “The political presence and emergence of Pakistan on the world map would not have happened without the first relationship that brought us together. Our roots of faith are certainly on Arab soil, but Our cultural ties are associated with the civilization of Central Asia: fertilization”. “Cooperation in education and culture is an important aspect of the relations between Pakistan and Central Asia.”
Religion is an important element in the development of relations between Pakistan and the Central Asian countries. For most CAR residents, it was natural to go to Pakistan because they are Sunni Muslims. In a press release dated September 2, 1991, Jamaican Senator Islamic Khajiv Sane Ahmed said: Look at Pakistan It is ideal because of its ideological foundation. ”
But support for extremist groups in the Tajik civil war has seriously undermined the desire to use Islam as a means of attacking these countries. Later, a wave of extreme movements spread throughout the region, and these countries began to recognize Pakistan with great doubt. Therefore, the long-awaited goal of Turkish and Pakistani politicians from Central Asia to Pakistan in the Afghan political struggle is to broaden the “strategic depth”, the “Islamic spirit” and to have a security zone presenting a real interest and Providing the necessary allies for the disputes over Kashmir and Afghanistan did not happen. In contrast, secular governments in Central Asia have called for security cooperation in Russia, China, and the West instead of Pakistan. “The Central African Republic signed the CIS security agreement in May 1992, participated in five Shanghai forums in 1996 and became the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in 2001.”
Islamabad has also attempted to use multilateral agencies in the region to counter the influence of its enemy India. The wish of Pakistan to balance India through regional organizations got demonstrated through SCO including Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, and the CARs. Being a member of ECO, states are supposed to build closer economic interaction. “SCO received significant progress in the areas of trade, transport, and energy. The application of SCO would pave the way for the economic integration of the region.” Despite all the claims made by Pakistani authorities regarding the progress of SCO still there are certain factors which showed that it did not work as this organization was thought of because “firstly the formation of a free trade area is difficult because the basic infrastructure is deficient.”
“Secondly the conflicting interests of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey restrict the role that SCO that can be played in the region” and lastly the uncertainty in Afghanistan is a key obstacle in developing the area of cooperation in the region. Islamabad also sponsored the admission of new independent countries from Central Asia to the Organization of the Islamic State. “Pakistan also wanted to join the SCO but was rejected by members of the Central Asian Organization. “The main obstacle was Pakistan’s support for the Afghan Taliban government.”
- Geo-Economic factor:
Pakistan is a geographic port from Central Asia to Central Asia. The idea of Pakistani leaders to clarify this point in Central Asia has facilitated cooperation with the region, making Pakistan more important not only in the Central African Republic and in neighboring countries but also in the West. Pakistan has sought to increase its interest in Central Asia by offering countries a number of suggestions on trade corridors, traffic flows, and access to ports. Karachi is the closest coastal city to Central Asia. Pakistan and Afghanistan have decided to build the Sherman-Kandahar Railway, which will extend to Turkmenistan and elsewhere. “The fourth agreement, signed between Pakistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan,” aims to develop trade between member states via the Karakorum route. Pakistan is also exploring the main sources of energy in Central Asia. Pakistan has energy conversion corridors in “South Asia and the Asia-Pacific region” and is expected to bring huge economic benefits to the country.
With the advent of a newly independent country in Central Asia, the Pakistani elite business community has found enormous economic opportunities in the region. Central Asia was seen not only as an important commodity but also as a potential export market. The region has 80 to 80 billion markets and is estimated at $ 1 billion per year. In December 1991, Uzbekistan made 30 million loans and 10 to 10 million loans to other countries in Central Asia. Despite high expectations, there is very limited trade between CARs and Pakistan. Between 1992 and 1993, Pakistan sold 6.6 million exports and 10.51 million imports to the region.
“Policy Options for Pakistan”
“Pakistan’s recent efforts to improve relations with Central Asia show that relations with the Central African Republic are improving. A visit by the President of Central Asia also shows that the system is trying to maintain new equality with Pakistan. This change may be due to the new security situation in the region, where the impact of China has been relatively declining and that of China and Russia is increasing. Countries like Uzbekistan are looking for new allies.” In addition, two factors are preventing the Central Asian government from ignoring Pakistan. Firstly, its strategic position, secondly, its connection and influence from militant groups like the IMU that affect the Pakistani government in Central Asia.
However, Central Asia remains a serious foreign affair for Pakistan. “Therefore, Islamabad must balance its support for the Taliban in order to strengthen its economic and political ties with Central Asia. It becomes more difficult when Islamic parties and groups become the dominant forces in the creation of Pakistan.” As a result, the impact of Pakistan’s diplomatic balance and stability in Afghanistan will greatly affect Pakistan’s entry into Central Asia.
In the future, despite the good relations with the Central African Republic of Pakistan, India will have to unilaterally unite without meeting a regional authority to manage this relationship despite the complexity of the situation. have to do it. And we have to increase our participation in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Or other regions in the region. Today’s conflict is meaningless. Commitment and collaboration are the driving force behind foreign decision-makers. Will India and Pakistan work together on this changing security model in Central Asia? So far, relations between India and Pakistan have developed in an atmosphere of misunderstandings, doubts and misunderstandings. But today mechanisms can be developed if geo-economics finds the right place to break these relationships. This approach offers a mutually beneficial situation for India, Pakistan, and Central Asia.
Pakistan must reassess its policy in Central Asia. Pakistan must establish a dynamic and fair “foreign policy based on full respect for the sovereignty of these countries.” Mutual cooperation and constructive interaction must be seen as a cornerstone of Pakistan’s vision for the region.
Tajikistan is rich in water resources and should be considered as a potential source of energy in Pakistan. Uzbekistan considers the national and regional instability of Pakistan as the main reason for the limited development of relations with Pakistan over the years. However, they stressed that they should endeavor to identify areas of mutual interest for future cooperation, such as energy sources, natural materials, minerals, exports, textiles, equipment, and telecommunications facilities.
Mechanisms are needed for scientists, cultural figures, and government officials to interact, deepen mutual understanding, and improve relationships. Personal contact is an effective way to build lasting relationships. In this case, Pakistan can offer scholarships to students and professionals from Central Asia.
Islamabad should use regional and international forums such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and ODA to build trust and improve economic and political cooperation. Faced with numerous infections and difficulties, Islamabad must fight for equality between the republics of Central Asia in order to establish a friendly relationship. Pakistan must adhere to all economic agreements in the true spirit and not wait for peace in Afghanistan to promote transport and pipelines.
Pakistan, whose policy is not yet clear, must develop a strategy to increase national interests, reduce negativity and turn sanctions into opportunities. It is only conceivable that Pakistan can identify gaps in different areas and therefore find effective measures to fill them. In this context, the development of national programs and the definition of national priorities can better contribute to the interests of a country, whatever its political or other relations. This will help Pakistan solve many problems and/or meet its diverse needs and actively interact with regional and global forces.
In fact, in addition to ports like Gwadar and Karachi of Pakistan, the fact that the country is geographically close to the Central African Republic and the abundance of oil, gas, and other important resources in the Central African Republic are some of the advantages. important of. And, strangely enough, this is another important advantage. There are no players in this area.
All this is useful, but the situation of Baluchistan in Islamabad must be settled wisely. Fulfill the economic dreams of turning the Gwadar of Pakistan into billions of dollars in commercial transportation, given the growing sentiment that raises legal and regulatory issues that the Baroque cannot control its nature.
“A new branch of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the countries of Central and South Asia can contribute to the implementation of the concept of regional and continental trade in Central Asia,” based on the experience drawn from the geopolitical reality and from the historical experience. It is expected to improve transport infrastructure in South Central Asia, open up traditional communication routes, “increase foreign direct investment and contribute to peace and stability in Afghanistan, Pakistan and the region in general. The United States could also offer new incentives to strengthen bilateral and multilateral confidence-building measures between Central Asia and South Asia.”
This study aimed to provide a clear picture of the consolidated Central Asian countries in Pakistan. Pakistan is trying to work closely with Central Asian countries in almost all areas. Central Asian countries also see Pakistan as mutually beneficial. Pakistan has concluded numerous bilateral agreements with each of the five republics in the region. They are trying to revive the historical, cultural, and commercial relations between Pakistan and the countries of the region. Official exchanges have had a significant impact on the report and these high-level visits must continue. The main obstacles in establishing close ties between Pakistan and the Central African Republic are the lack of mutual borders, instability in Afghanistan, and the consequences of the US terrorist war of 11 September. Central Asian countries cannot ignore Pakistan because of its geostrategic importance in the region. Pakistan wants to explore transit routes to Central Asia. The shortest and cheapest way for this region to reach international markets through Afghanistan is through the Pakistani ports of Gwadar and Karachi. China has taken responsibility for the development of the port of Gwadar. The intention is to develop an energy and commercial path for cars in CAR and in the rest of the region. As the United States leaves Afghanistan, Pakistan’s policies must carefully define “Pakistan’s regional policy in order to maintain peace and protect its political and economic interests in Central Asian countries”.